Cover Articles


    *denotes trainee


219. Ma Y.*, Commandeur U., Steinmetz N.F. (2021) Three Alternative Treatment Protocols for the Efficient Inactivation of Potato Virus X. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 

218. Ortega-Rivera, O.A.*, Shukla, S.*, Shin, M.D.*, Chen, A.*, Beiss, V.*, Moreno-Gonzalez, M.A.*, Zheng, Y. Clark, A.E., Carlin, A.F., Pokorski, J.K., and Steinmetz, N.F. (2021) Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticle Vaccine Candidates Displaying Peptide Epitopes Can Neutralize the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. ACS Infectious Diseases .

217. Nkanga, C.I.*, Chung, Y.H.*, Shukla, S.* Zhou, J., Jokerst J.V., Steinmetz N.F. (2021) The in vivo fate of tobacco mosaic virusnanoparticle theranostic agents modified by theaddition of a polydopamine coat. Biomaterials Sci. DOI: 10.1039/d1bm01113h.

216. Chung, Y.H.*#, Park, J.*#, Cai, H.*#, Steinmetz N.F. (2021) S100A9-Targeted Cowpea Mosaic Virus as a Prophylactic and Therapeutic Immunotherapy Against Metastatic Breast Cancer and Melanoma. Adv. Sci. #these authors contributed equally

215. Gautam, A.*, Beiss, V.*, Wang, C.*, Wang, L.*, Steinmetz, N.F. (2021) Plant Viral Nanoparticle Conjugated with Anti-PD-1 Peptide for Ovarian Cancer Immunotherapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 9733.

214. Ortega-Rivera, O.A.*, Shin, M.D.*, Chen, A.*, Beiss, V.*, Moreno-Gonzalez, M.A.*, Lopez-Ramirez, M.A., Reynoso, M., Wang., H., Hurst, B.L., Wang, J., Pokorski, J.P., and Steinmetz N.F. (2021) Trivalent Subunit Vaccine Candidates for COVID-19 and Their Delivery Devices. JACS

213. Zhong, Z., Balayan, A., Tian, J., Xiang, Y., Hwang, H.H., Wu, X., Deng, X., Schimelman, J., Sun, Y., Ma, C., Dos Santos, A., You, S., Tang, M., Yao, E., Shi, X., Steinmetz, N.F., Deng, S.X., Chen, S. (2021) Bioprinting of dual ECM scaffolds encapsulating limbal stem/progenitor cells in active and quiescent statuses. Biofabrication. 2021 Aug 13;13(4). doi: 10.1088/1758-5090/ac1992.

212. Borum, R.M., Moore, C., Chan, S.K.*, Steinmetz, N.F., and Jokerst, J.V. (2021) A Photoacoustic Contrast Agent for miR-21 via NIR Fluorescent 2 Hybridization Chain Reaction. Bioconjugate Chemistry,

211. Chan S.K.* and Steinmetz N.F. (2021) Isolation of Cowpea Mosaic Virus-Binding Peptides. Biomacromolecules.

210. Boone C.E.*, Wang L.*, Gautam A.*, Newton I.G., Steinmetz, N.F. (2021) Combining nanomedicine and immune checkpoint therapy for cancer immunotherapy. Wires Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology. DOI: 10.1002/wnan.1739

209. Hu H.*, Steinmetz N.F. (2021) Development of a Virus-Like Particle-Based Anti-HER2 Breast Cancer Vaccine. Cancers 2021, 13(12), 2909;

208. Shukla, S.*, Marks I.*, Church, D., Chan, S.K., Pokorski, J. P., Steinmetz, N. F. (2021) Tobacco mosaic virus for the targeted delivery ofdrugs to cells expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen. RSC Advances. DOI: 10.1039/d1ra03166j

207. Mao, C., Beiss, V.*, Fields, J., Steinmetz, N.F., Fiering, S. (2021) Cowpea mosaic virus stimulates antitumor immunity through recognition by multiple MYD88-dependent toll-like receptors. Biomaterials. In press.

206. Park, J.*#, Wen A.M.*#, Gao, H., Shin M.D.*, Simon D.I., Wang, Y., Steinmetz, N.F. (2021). Designing S100A9-Targeted Plant Virus Nanoparticles to Target Deep Vein Thrombosis. Biomacromolecules. #these authors contributed equally.

205. Chariou, P.L.*, Ma, Y.*, Hensley, M., Rosskopf, E.N., Hong, J.C., Charudattan, R., Steinmetz, N.F. (2021) Inactivated Plant Viruses as an Agrochemical Delivery Platform; ACS Agricultural Science & Technology;

204. Pereira-Silva, M., Chauhan, G., Shin, M.D.*, Hoskins, C., Madou, M.J., Martinez-Chapa, S.O., Steinmetz, N.F., Veiga, F., Santos A.C. (2021) Unleashing the potential of cell membrane based nanoparticles for COVID-19 treatment and vaccination. Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery. DOI: 10.1080/17425247.2021.1922387

203. Steinmetz, N.F. (2021) NanoEngineering gone #viral: plant-virus-based therapeutics. Volume 2, Article ID 202102129, DOI: 10.5185/vpoam.2021.02129

202. Ortega-Rivera, O.A.*, Pokorski, J.K., Steinmetz, N.F. (2021) A Single-Dose, Implant-Based, Trivalent Virus-like Particle Vaccine against “Cholesterol Checkpoint” Proteins. Advanced Therapeutics 2100014.  PMID: pending. PMCID: pending (NIHMS1684434)

201. Stump, C.T.; Ho, G.; Mao, C.; Veliz, F.A.*; Beiss, V.*; Fields, J.; Steinmetz, N.F.; Fiering, S. (2021) Remission Stage Ovarian Cancer Cell Vaccine with Cowpea Mosaic Virus Adjuvant Prevents Tumor Growth. Cancers, 13, 627.  PMID: 33562450; PMCID: PMC7915664.

200. Thuenemann, E.C., Le, D.H.T.*, Lomonossoff G.P., and Steinmetz N.F. (2021) Bluetongue Virus Particles as Nanoreactors for Enzyme Delivery and  Cancer Therapy. Molecular Pharmaceutics 18(3):1150-1156, PMID: 33566625, PMCID: pending (NIHMS1693252)

199.  Chariou P.L.*, Beiss V.*, Ma Y.*, Steinmetz N.F. (2021) In situ Vaccine Application of Inactivated CPMV Nanoparticles for Cancer Immunotherapy. Materials Advances 2, 1644. PMID: pending. PMCID: pending (NIHMS1693251)

198. Nkanga C.I.*, Steinmetz N.F. (2021) Thepharmacology of plant virus nanoparticles. Virology, 556:39-61.  MID:33545555, PMCID: PMC7974633.

197.  Shao, S.*# Ortega-Rivera, O.A.*#, Ray,S.*, Pokorski, J.K., Steinmetz, N.F. (2021) A Scalable ManufacturingApproach to Single Dose Vaccination against HPV. Vaccines 9(1) 66. PMID:33478147, PMCID: PMC7835769. #these authors contributed equally

196. Chan S.K.*, Du P., Ignacio C., Mehta S.,Netwon I.G., Steinmetz, N.F. (2021) Virus-like Particlesas Positive Controls for COVID-19 RT-LAMP 2 Diagnostic Assays.Biomacromolecules, 22(3):1231-1243.  PMID: 33539086, PMCID: NA.

195. Chan S.K.*, DuP., Ignacio C., Mehta S., Netwon I.G., Steinmetz, N.F. (2021)Biomimetic Virus-Like Particles as Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromeCoronavirus 2 Diagnostic Tools. ACS Nano, 15(1):1259-1272.  PMID: 33237727,PMCID: PMC7724985.



194. Duval, K.E., Wagner, R.J., Beiss, V., Fiering, S.N., Steinmetz, N.F. and Hoopes, P.J., 2020. Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticle Enhancement of Hypofractionated Radiation in a B16 Murine Melanoma Model. Frontiers in Oncology, 10, p.2683. PMID: 33392089, PMCID: PMC7773968.

193. Hu H. Steinmetz N. F. (2020) Cisplatin pro-drug loaded nanoparticles based on Physalis mottle virus for cancer therapy. Mol. Pharmaceutics 2020, 17, 4629−4636. PMID:33186039, PMCID: PMC8087187

192. Li L., Steinmetz N.F., Eppell S.J., Zypman F.R. (2020) Charge Calibration Standard for Atomic Force Microscope Tips in Liquids. Langmuir. 36(45):13621-13632. PMID: 3155810. PMCID: NA.

191. Chung Y.H., Beiss V., Fiering S.N., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) COVID-19 Vaccine Frontrunners and Their 2 Nanotechnology Design. ACS Nano, 14(10):12522-12537. PMID: 33034449; PMCID: PMC7553041.

190. Hu H. Steinmetz N. F. (2020) Doxorubicin-Loaded Physalis Mottle Virus Particles as a pH-Responsive Prodrug for Cancer Therapy. Biotechnology Journal. 15(12):e2000077. PMID: 32918857; PMCID: PMC7888571.

189. Shukla S., Wang C., Beiss V., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) Antibody Response against Cowpea Mosaic Viral Nanoparticles Improves In SituVaccine Efficacy in Ovarian Cancer. ACS Nano 14 (3), 2994-3003. PMID: 32133838. PMCID: PMC8085886

188. Adhikari P., Li N., Shin M., Steinmetz N.F., Twarock R., Podgornik R., Ching Wai-Yim. (2020) Intra- and intermolecular atomic-scale interactions in the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: implication for ACE2 receptor binding. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 22(33):18272-18283. PMID: 32756685, PMCID: NA.

187. Boone C.E.,* Wang C.*, Lopez-Ramirez, M.A., Beiss V.*, Shukla S.*, Chariou P.L.*, Kupor D., Rueda R., Wang J.# and Steinmetz N.F.#(2020) Active Microneedle Administration of Plant Virus Nanoparticles for Cancer In Situ Vaccination Improves Immunotherapeutic Efficacy. ACS Applied Nano Materials 3, 8037−8051. #co-corresponding. PMID: pending, PMCID: pending (NIHMS1679614)).

186. Shukla S., Wang C., Beiss V., Cai H., Washington II T., Murray A.A.*, Gong X.*, Zhao Z., Masarapu H., Zlotnick A., Fiering, S. Steinmetz N.F. (2020) The unique potency of Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) in situ cancer vaccine. Biomaterials Science 8, 5489. **2020 most popular article. PMID: 32914796; PMCID: PMC8086234.

2020 most popular article!

185. Shin M.D.#, Shukla S.#, Chung Y. H., Beiss V., Chan S. K., Ortega-Rivera O. A., Wirth D. M., Chen A., Sack M., Pokorski J. K., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) COVID-19 vaccine development and a potential nanomaterial path forward. Nat Nanotechnol. 15(8):646-655.  #these authors contributed equally PMID: 32669664. PMCID: NA.

184. Chung Y.H.#, Cai H.#, Steinmetz N.F.  (2020) Viral nanoparticles for drug delivery, imaging, immunotherapy, and theranostic applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2020;156:214-235.  #these authors contributed equally PMID: 32603813; PMCID: PMC7320870.

183. Patel B.K., Wang C., Lorens B., Levine A.D., Steinmetz N.F.,# Shukla S.# (2020)  Cowpea Mosaic Virus (CPMV)-Based Cancer Testis Antigen NY-ESO‑1 Vaccine Elicits an Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Cell Response. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2020, 3, 4179−4187. #co-corresponding. PMID: pending, PMCID: PMC8340627

182. Shukla S.#, Roe A.J.#, Liu R., Veliz F.A., Commandeur U., Wald D.N., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) Affinity of plant viral nanoparticle potato virus X (PVX) towards malignant B cells enables cancer drug delivery. RSC Biomaterials Science. 8(14):3935-3943. PMID: 32662788, PMCID: PMC7810362

181. Shukla S., Hu H., Cai H., Chan S.-K., Boone C. E., Beiss B., Chariou P.L., Steinmetz N.F. (2020)  Plant Viruses and Bacteriophage-Based Reagents for Diagnosis and Therapy. Annu. Rev. Virol. 7(1):559-587, PMID: 32991265; PMCID: PMC8018517.

180. Steinmetz N.F., Lim S., Sainsbury F.  Protein cages and virus-like particles: from fundamental insight to biomimetic therapeutics (2020) RSC Biomaterials Science. 2020, 8, 2771. PMID: 32352101, PMCID: PMC8085892

179. Park J.#, Chariou P.L.#, Steinmetz N.F.  Site-Specific Antibody Conjugation Strategy to Functionalize Virus-Based Nanoparticles (2020)  Bioconjugate Chemistry 31 (5), 1408-1416. #these authors contributed equally PMID: 32281790, PMCID: PMC8085887

178. Wang C. and Steinmetz N.F. (2020) A Combination of Cowpea mosaic virus and Immune Checkpoint Therapy Synergistically Improves Therapeutic Efficacy in Three Tumor Models. Advanced Functional Materials, 2002299. PMID: 34366758; PMCID: PMC8340625

177. Wang C., Fernández de Ávila B.E., Mundaca-Uribe R., Lopez-Ramirez M.A., Ramírez-Herrera D.E., Shukla S., Steinmetz N.F. #,  Wang J. (2020) Active Delivery of VLPs Promotes Anti-Tumor Activity in a Mouse Ovarian Tumor Model, Small 2020, 16(20):e1907150. PMID: 32329580; PMCID: PMC7507763. 

176. Shukla S., Wang C., Beiss V., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) Antibody Response against Cowpea Mosaic Viral Nanoparticles Improves In Situ Vaccine Efficacy in Ovarian Cancer. ACS Nano 14 (3), 2994-3003. PMID: 32133838. PMCID: PMC8085886

175. Chariou P.L., Ortega-Rivera O.A., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) Nanocarriers for the Delivery of Medical, Veterinary, and Agricultural Active  Ingredients. ACS Nano 14 (3), 2678-2701. PMID: 32125825, PMCID: PMC8085836

174.  Cai H., ShuklaS., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) The Antitumor Efficacy of CpGOligonucleotides is Improved by Encapsulation in Plant Virus-LikeParticles. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2020, 1908743. PMID: 34366757; PMCID:PMC8340626.

173. Wen A.M., Lee K.L., Steinmetz N.F. (2020) Plant Virus-Based Nanotechnologies. Women in Nanotechnology. Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020. Women in Engineering and Science, P. M. Norris, L. E. Friedersdorf (eds.), p. 57-69. PMID: NA, PMCID: NA.

172.           Albakri M.M., Veliz F.A.*, FieringS.N., Steinmetz N.F., Sieg S.F. (2020) Endosomal toll-likereceptors play a key role in activation of primary human monocytes by CowpeaMosaic Virus. Immunology. 159: 183-192. PMID: 3163092, PMCID: PMC6954739.

171. Lopez-Ramirez M.A., Soto F., Wang C., Rueda R., Shukla S, Silva-Lopez C., Kupor D., McBride D.A., Pokorski J.K., Nourhani A., Steinmetz N.F.#, Shah N.#, Wang J.# (2019) Built-In Active Microneedle Patch with Enhanced Autonomous Drug Delivery. Advanced Materials. Adv. Mater. 2019, 1905740. #co-corresponding authors. PMID: 31682039. PMCID: PMC7014935.


170.            Anderson C.E.,Johansen M., Erokwu B.O., Hu H., Gu Y., Zhang Y., Kavran M., VincentJ., Drumm M.L., Griswold M.A., Steinmetz N.F., Li M., ClarkH., Darrah R.J., Yu X., Brady-Kalnay S.M., Flask C.A. (2019) Dynamic,Simultaneous Concentration Mapping of Multiple MRI Contrast Agentswith Dual Contrast - MagneticResonance Fingerprinting. Scientific Reports 9:19888. PMID: 31882792,PMCID: PMC6934650

169. Wang C.*, Beiss V.*, Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticles and Empty Virus-Like Particles Show Distinct but Overlapping Immunostimulatory Properties. J of Virology 93, e00129-19. PMID: 31375592, PMCID: PMC6803287.

168. Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Biological and evolutionary concepts for nanoscale engineering. EMBO Reports, e48806. PMID: 31314151. PMCID: PMC6680157.

167. Lam P.*, Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Delivery of siRNA therapeutics using cowpea chlorotic mottle virus-like particles. RSC Biomaterials, 7, 3138-3142. PMID: 31257379, PMCID: PMC6705399.

166. Cai H.*, Wang C.*, Shukla S.*, Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Cowpea Mosaic Virus Immunotherapy Combined with Cyclophosphamide Reduces Breast Cancer Tumor Burden and Inhibits Lung Metastasis. Adv. Sci. 2019, 1802281. PMID: 31453050, PMCID: PMC6702650.

165. Chariou P.L.*, Dogan A.B.*, Welsh A.G.*, Saidel G.M., Baskaran H., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Soil mobility of synthetic and virus-based model nanopesticides. Nature Nanotechnology, 14, 712-718. PMID: 31110265, PMCID: pending (NIHMS 1066976)

164. Hu H.*, Masarapu H., Gu Y., Zhang Y., Yu X., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Physalis Mottle Virus-like Nanoparticles for Targeted Cancer Imaging. ACS Applied Materials 11, 18213-18223. PMID: 31074602, PMCID: pending (NIHMS 1066978)

163. Hu H.*, Yang Q., Baroni S., Yang H., Aime S., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Polydopamine-decorated tobacco mosaic virus for photoacoustic/magnetic resonance bimodal imaging and photothermal cancer therapy. Nanoscale, 11, 9760-9768. PMID: 31066418, PMCID: PMC6679940.

162. Cai H.*, Shukla S.*, Wang C.*, Masarapu H., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Heterologous Prime-Boost Enhances the Antitumor Immune Response Elicited by Plant-Virus-Based Cancer Vaccine. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2019 141 (16), 6509-6518. PMID: 30995022, PMCID: pending (NIHMS 1066975)

161. Kerstetter-Fogle A.#, Shukla S.*#, Wang C.*, Beiss V.*, Harris P.L.R., Sloan A.E., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Plant Virus-Like Particle In Situ Vaccine for Intracranial Glioma Immunotherapy. Cancers 2019, 11, 515. PMID: 30974896, PMCID: PMC6521079. #these authors contributed equally.

160. Murray A.A.*, Sheen M.R., Veliz F.A.*, Fiering S.N., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) In Situ Vaccination of Tumors Using Plant Viral Nanoparticles. Volkmar Weissig and Tamer Elbayoumi (eds.), Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Basic Protocols, Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 2000, p. 111-124. PMID: 31148013. PMCID: NA.

159. Wang C.*, Fiering S., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Cowpea Mosaic Virus Promotes Anti-Tumor Activity and Immune Memory in a Mouse Ovarian Tumor Model. Advanced Therapeutics. 1900003. PMID: pending, PMCID: pending (NIHMS 1066974).

158. Zheng Y., Lee P.W., Wang C.*, Thomas L.D., Stewart P.L., Steinmetz N.F.#, Pokorski J.K.# (2019) Freeze-Drying To Produce Efficacious CPMV Virus-like Particles. Nano Letters 19, 2099-2105. PMID: 30801195, PMCID: pending. #co-corresponding.

157. Wang C*, Steinmetz N.F. (2019) CD47 Blockade and Cowpea Mosaic Virus Nanoparticle In Situ Vaccination Synergistically Triggers Phagocytosis and Tumor Killing. Adv. Healthcare Mater, e1801288. PMID: 30838815, PMCID: 6633909.

156. Jawad B., Poudel L., Podgornik R., Steinmetz N.F., Ching W.Y. (2019) Molecular mechanism and binding free energy of doxorubicin intercalation in DNA. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., 21, 3877-3893. PMID: 30702122, PMCID: NA.

155. Park J.*, Gao H., Wang Y., Hu H.*, Simon D.I., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) S100A9-targeted tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles exhibit high specificity toward atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice. J Mater Chem B. 7, 1842-1846. PMID: pending, PMCID: pending (NIHMS 1066839)

154. Chariou P.L.*, Wang L.*, Desai C.*, Park J.*, Robbins L.K., von Recum H.A., Ghiladi R.G., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Let there be light: targeted photodynamic therapy using high aspect ratio plant viral nanoparticles. Macromol. Biosci. e1800407. PMID: 30721575, PMCID: NA..

153. Shukla S.*, Jandzinski M.*, Wang C.*, Gong X.*, Weber Bonk K., Keri R.A., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) A viral nanoparticle cancer vaccine delays tumor progression and prolongs survival in tumor mouse models. Advanced Therapeutics, e1800139. PMID: pending, PMCID: pending (NIHMS 1066972)

152. Le D.H.T.*, Commandeur U., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Presentation and Delivery of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand via Elongated Plant Viral Nanoparticle Enhances Antitumor Efficacy, ACS Nano, 13, 2501-2510. , PMID: 30668110, PMCID: NA..

151. Wen A.M.*, Steinmetz N.F., Shukla S.*, (2019) Emerging Nanotechnologies for Cancer Immunodiagnosis and Cancer Immunotherapies. pp. 293-336. Eds. Deepak Chitkara, Anupama Mittal, Ram I. Mahato, Molecular Medicines for Cancer: Concepts and Applications of Nanotechnology (Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2019).

150. Le D.H.T.*, Mendez-Lopez E., Wang C.*, Commandeur U., Aranda M. A., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Biodistribution of Filamentous Plant Virus Nanoparticles: Pepino Mosaic Virus versus Potato Virus X, Biomacromolecules, DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01365, PMID: 30516960, PMCID: PMC648256.

149. Marin-Caba L.*, Chariou P.L.*, Pesquera C., Correa-Duarte M., Steinmetz N.F. (2019) Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles, a Wool-Ball-like Nanostructure for Drug Delivery, Langmuir, 35, 203-211, PMID: 30576145, PMCID: PMC30576145.


148. Pitek A.S., Hu H.,Shukla S., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Cancer theranostic applications of albumin-coated tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 10(46):39468-39477. PMID: 30403330. PMCID: PMC6485250.

147. Lam P., Lin R.D., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Delivery of mitoxantrone using a plant virus-based nanoparticle for the treatment of glioblastomas. J. Mater. Chem. B. 6,5888-5895, PMID: 30923616, PMCID: PMC6433411.

146. Lu Z.R., Steinmetz N.F., Zhu H. (2018) New Directions for Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy, Mol. Pharm, 15, 3601−3602. PMID: 30176732, PMCID: NA.

145. Lin R.D., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Tobacco mosaic virus delivery of mitoxantrone for cancer therapy. Nanoscale 10,16307-16313. PMID: 30129956, PMCID: PMC6145845.

144. Murray A.A., Wang C.,Fiering S., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) In situ vaccination with cowpea vs. tobacco mosaic virus against melanoma. Mol Pharm. 15, 3700-3716. PMID: 29798673, PMCID: PMC6230260.

143. Pitek A.S., Park J.,Wang Y., Gao H., Hu H., Simon D.I., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Delivery of thrombolytic therapy using rod-shaped plant viral nanoparticles decreases the risk of hemorrhage. Nanoscale 10, 16547-16555. PMID: 30137088, PMCID:PMC6145846.

142. Zheng Y., Dougherty M.L., Konkolewicz D., Steinmetz N.F., Pokorski J.K. (2018) Green nanofillers: Plant virus reinforcement in hydrophilic polymer nanocomposites. Polymer, 142, 72-79. PMID: NA, PMCID: NA.

141. Al-Handawi M.B., Commins P., Shukla S., Didier P., TanakaM. Raj G., Veliz F.A., Pasricha R., Steinmetz N.F., Naumov P. (2018) Encapsulation of plant viral particles in calcite crystals. Advanced Biosystems, 1700176. PMID: NA, PMCID: NA. Cover article.

140. Gulati N.M., Stewart P.L., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Bio-inspired shielding strategies for nanoparticle drug delivery applications. Mol Pharm., 15,2900-2909, PMID: 29733602, PMCID: PMC6223124.

139. Hoopes P.J., Wagner R.J.,Duval K., Kang K., Gladstone D.J., Moodie K.L., Crary-Burney M., Ariaspulido H., Veliz F.A.*, Steinmetz N.F.#, Fiering S.# (2018) Treatment of canine oral melanoma with nanotechnology-based immunotherapy and radiation. Mol Pharm., 15, 3717-3722. PMID: 29613803, PMCID: PMC6296751. #co-corresponding authors.

138. Patel R., CzaparA.E., Fiering S., Oleinick N.L., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Radiation therapy combined with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticle in situ vaccination initiates immune-mediated tumor regression. ACS Omega 3, 3702-3707.PMID: 29732445, PMCID: PMC5928490.

137. Vernekar A.A., BergerG., Czapar A.E., Veliz F.A., Wang D.I., Steinmetz N.F.#, Lippard S.J.# (2018) Speciation of Phenanthriplatin and Its Analogs in the Core of TobaccoMosaic Virus. J Am Chem Soc, 140, 4279-4287, PMID: 29553267, PMCID: PMC5929126. #co-corresponding authors.

136. Gulati N.M.#, Pitek A.S.#, Czapar A.E.*, Stewart P.L., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) The in vivo fates of plant viral nanoparticles camouflaged using self-proteins: overcoming immune recognition. Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 6, 2204-2216. PMID: 30294445., PMCID: PMC6171361.

135. Shukla S., Dickmeis C., Fischer R., Commandeur U., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) In planta Production of Fluorescent Plant Virus-based Nanoparticles Methods Mol Biol. 1776:61-84. PMID: 29869235. PMDIC: NA.

134. Pitek, A.S.,Veliz, F.A., Jameson, S.A., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Interactions between plant viral nanoparticles and blood plasma proteins, and their impact on the VNP in vivo fates. Methods Mol Biol., 1776:591-608. PMID: 29869268. PMCID: NA.

133. Bruckman, M.A.,Czapar, A.E., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Drug-loaded plant-virus based nanoparticles for cancer drug delivery. Methods Mol Biol. 1776:425-436. PMID: 29869258. PMCID: NA.

132. Tiu B.D.B., Advincula R.C., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Nanomanufacture of Free-standing, Porous, Janus-TypeFilms of Polymer-Plant Virus Nanoparticle Arrays Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1776:143-157. PMID: 29869239, PMCID: NA.

131.Czapar A.E.#, Tiu B.D.B.#,Veliz F.A., Pokorski J.P., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Slow-Release Formulation of Cowpea Mosaic Virus for InSitu Vaccine Delivery to Treat Ovarian Cancer. Advanced Science, 5(5):1700991. PMID: 29876220, PMCID: PMC5979803. #both authors contributed equally.

130. Lam P.L., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Plant viral and bacteriophage delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 10(1):e1487. PMID: 28719102, PMCID: NA.

129. Franke C.E., Czapar A.E., Patel R.B., Steinmetz N.F. (2018) Tobacco MosaicVirus-Delivered Cisplatin Restores Efficacy in Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells. Mol Pharm. 15(8):2922-2931. PMID: 28926265, PMCID: NA.


128. Masarapu H.,Patel B.K., Chariou P.L., Hu H., Gulati N.M., Carpenter B.L., Ghiladi R.A.,Shukla S., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) Physalis mosaic virus-like particles as nanocarriers for imaging reagents and drugs. Biomacromolecules, 18, 4141-4153.

127. Pitek A.S., Wang Y., Gulati S., Gao H., Stewart P.L., Simon D.I., Steinmetz NF. Elongated plant virus-based nanoparticles for enhanced delivery of thrombolytic therapies. MolPharm, 14, 3815-3823.

126. Lee P.W., Shukla S., Wallat J.D., Danda C., Steinmetz N.F., Maia J., Pokorski J.K. (2017) Biodegradable Viral Nanoparticle/Polymer Implants Prepared via Melt-Processing. ACS Nano, 11,8777-8789.

125. Steinmetz N.F. (2017) Enter the Nanoman | In the Classroom, Nature Nanotechnology, 12, p. 928.

124. Hu H., Zhang Y., Shuka S., Gu Y. Yu X. Steinmetz N.F. (2017), Dysprosium-Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus Nanoparticles forUltra-High-Field Magnetic Resonance and Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Prostate Cancer. ACS Nano, 11,9249-9258.

123. Anderson C.E., Donnola S.B., Jiang Y., Batesole, Y., Darrah R., Drumm M., Brady-Kalnay S.M., Steinmetz N.F., Yu X., Griswold M.A., Flask C.A. (2017) Dual Contrast - Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (DC-MRF): A Platform for Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple MRI Contrast Agents. Scientific Reports, 7: 8431.

122. Cho C.-F., Yu L., Nsiasama T.K., Kadam A.N., Raturi A., Shukla S., Amadei G.A., Steinmetz N.F., Luyt L.G., Lewis J.D. (2017) Viral nanoparticles decorated with novel EGFL7ligands enable intravital imaging of tumor neovasculature. Nanoscale, 9, 12096-12109.

121. Veliz F.A., Ma Y., Molugu S.K., Tiu B.D.B., Stewart P.L., French R.H., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) Photon management through virus-programmed supramolecular arrays. Advanced Biosystems, 1, 1700088.

120. Kernan D.L., Wen A.M., Pitek A.S., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) Delivery of chemotherapeutic vcMMAE using tobacco mosaicvirus nanoparticles, Experimental Biology and Medicine, DOI: 10.1177/1535370217719222.

119. Le D.H.T., He Hu, Commandeur U., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) Chemical addressability of potato virus X for its applications in bio/nanotechnology, Journal of Structural Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2017.06.006

118. Lee K.L.*, Murray A.A.*, Le, D.H.T., Sheen M. R., Shukla S., Commandeur U., Fiering S., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) Combination of Plant Virus Nanoparticle-Based in Situ Vaccination with Chemotherapy Potentiates Antitumor Response. Nano Letters, 17, 4019-4028. *these authors contributed equally.

117. Poudel L., Twarock R., Steinmetz N.F., Podgornik R., Ching, W.-Y. (2017) Impact of Hydrogen Bonding in Binding Site Between Capsid Protein and MS2 Bacteriophage ssRNA. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 121, 6321-6330.

116. Wallat J.D., Wek K., Chariou P.L., Carpenter B.L., Ghiladi R.A., Steinmetz N.F., Pokorski J.K. (2017) Fluorinated polymer–photosensitizer conjugates enable improved generation of ROS for anticancer photodynamic therapy. Polymer Chemistry. 8, 3195-3202.

115. Czapar A.E., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) Plant viruses and bacteriophages for drug deliveryin medicine and biotechnology. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 38:1-9.

114. Hoopes P.J., Mazur C.M., Osterberg B., Song A., Gladstone D.J., Steinmetz N.F., Veliz F.A., Bursey A.A. Wagner R.J., Fiering S.N. (2017) Effect of intra-tumoral magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and viral nanoparticle immunogenicity on primary and metastatic cancer. Proc. SPIE. 10066, Energy-based Treatment of Tissue and Assessment IX, 100660G. (February 24, 2017) doi: 10.1117/12.2256062

113. Hoopes P.J., Moddie K.L., Petryk A.A., Petryk J.D., Sechrist S., Gladstone D.J., Steinmetz N.F., Veliz F.A., Bursey A.A., Wagner J.W., Rajan A., Dugat D., Crary-Burney M., Fiering S.N. (2017) Hypo-fractionated radiation, magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and viral immunotherapy treatment to spontaneous canine cancer. Proc. SPIE. 10066, Energy-based Treatment of Tissue and Assessment IX, 100660G. (February 24, 2017). doi: 10.1117/12.2256213

112. Chariou P.L., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) Delivery of Pesticides to Plant Parasitic Nematodes Using Tobacco Mild Green Mosaic Virus as a Nanocarrier. ACS Nano 11, 4719-4730.

111. Lam P., Keri R.A., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) A Bioengineered Positive Control for Rapid Detection of the Ebola 2 Virus by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal 3 Amplification (RT-LAMP), ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering, 3, 452-459.

110. Le D.H.T*, Lee K.L.*, Shukla S., Commandeur U., Steinmetz N.F., (2017) Potato virus X, a filamentous plant viral nanoparticle for doxorubicin delivery in cancer therapy, Nanoscale, 9, 2348-2357. *These authors contributed equally.

109. Lee P.W., Isarov S.A., Wallt J.D., Molugu S.K., Shukla S., Sun J.E.P., Zhang J., Zheng Y., Dougherty M.L., Konkolewicz D., StewartP.L., Steinmetz N.F., Hore M.J.A.,Pokorski J.K. (2017) Polymer Structure and Conformation Alter the Antigenicity of Virus-like Particle−Polymer Conjugates , J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139:3312-3315.

108. Gulati N.M., Pitek A.S., Steinmetz N.F.#, Stewart P.L.# (2017) Cryo-Electron Tomography Investigation of Camouflaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus Nanoparticles, Nanoscale. 9, 3408-3415. #co-corresponding authors **Cover article.

107. Tiu, B.D.B., Kernan, D.L., Tiu, S.B., Wen, A.M., Zheng Y., Pokorski, J.K., Advincula, R.C., Steinmetz, N.F. (2017) Electrostatic layer-by-layer construction of fibrous TMV biofilms, Nanoscale, 9, 1580-1590.

106. Wallat J.D., Czapar A.E., Wang C., Wen A.M., Yu X., Steinmetz N.F., Pokorski J.K. (2017) Optical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging by Fluorous Colloidal Nanoparticles, Biomacromolecules, 18:103-112.

105. Shukla S., Myers J.T., Woods S.E., Gong X., Czapar A.E., Huang A.Y., Commandeur U., Levine A., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) Plant virus-based HER2 vaccines: Immune response driven by transport, localization and cellular interactions of CPMV and PVX carriers, Biomaterials, 121:15-27.

104. Bludau H.*, Czapar A.E.*, Pitek A.S., Shukla S., Jordan R., Steinmetz N.F. (2017) POxylation as an alternative stealth coating for biomedical applications, European Polymer Journal, 88, 679-688. *these authors contributed equally.

103. Glidden, M.D., Edelbrock, J.F., Wen, A.M., Shukla, S., Ma, Y., French, R.H., Pokorski, J.K., Steinmetz, N.F. (2017) Application of viral nanoparticles in materials and medicine, in Chemoselective and Bioorthogonal Ligation Reactions: Concepts and Applications, Wiley-VCH.


102. Steinmetz, N.F. (2016) Viral nanoparticles as platforms for next generation therapeutics and imaging devices. In Nanomedicine in Cancer, Edited by LP Balogh, Pan Stanford Publishing.

101. Sreekanth K.V., Alapan Y., ElKabbash M., Wen A.M., Ilker E., Hinczewski M., Gurkan U.A., Steinmetz N.F., Strangi G. (2016) Enhancing the Angular Sensitivity of Plasmonic Sensors Using Hyperbolic Metamaterials. Advanced Optical Materials, 4, 1767-1772.

100. Poudel L., Steinmetz N.F., French R.H., Parsegian V.A., Podgornik R. and Ching W.Y. (2016). Implication of the solvent effect, metal ions andtopology in the electronic structure and hydrogenbonding of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA. Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, 18:21573-21585.

99. Tiu BDB, Tiu SB, Wen AM,Lam P, Steinmetz NF, Advincula RC (2016) Free-standing, Nanopatterned Janus Membranes of Conducting Polymer-VirusNanoparticle Arrays, Langmuir, 32, 6185-6193.

98. Yasar S, Schimelman JB, Aksoyoglu MA, Steinmetz NF, French RH, Parsegian VA, Podgornik R (2016) X-ray characterization of mesophases of human telomeric G-quadruplexes and other DNA analogues. Scientific Reports, 6, 27079.

97. Wen, AM and Steinmetz NF (2016) Design of virus-based nanomaterials for medicine,biotechnology, and energy. Chem Soc Rev, 45, 4074-4126.

96. Shukla S, Steinmetz NF (2016) Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 241, 1116-1126.

95. Wen AM, Lee KL, Cao PF, Pangilinan K, Carpenter BL, Lam P, Veliz F, Ghiladi RA, Advincula RC,Steinmetz NF. (2016) Utilizing viral nanoparticle/dendron hybrid conjugates in photodynamic therapy for dual delivery to macrophages and cancer cells. Bioconjug Chem. 27, 1227-1235.

94. Chariou PL, Lee KL, Pokorski JK, Saidel GM, Steinmetz NF. (2016): Diffusion and Uptake of Tobacco Mosaic Virus as Therapeutic Carrier in Tumor Tissue: Effect of Nanoparticle Aspect Ratio. J Phys Chem B. 120, 6120-6129.

93. Shukla S, Dorand RD, Meyers JT, Woods SE, Gulati NM, Stewart PL, Commandeur U, Huang A, Steinmetz NF (2016): Multiple Administrations of Viral Nanoparticles Alter in vivo Behavior – Insights from Intravital Microscopy, ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng., 2, 829-837.

92. Lee, K. L., Carpenter, B. L., Amy M. Wen, Ghiladi R. A., Steinmetz, N. F. (2016) High-aspect ratio nanotubes formed by tobacco mosaic virus for delivery of photodynamic agents targeting melanoma, ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng., 2, 838-844.

91. Lam, P., Gulati N. M., Stewart, P. L., Keri R. A., Steinmetz, N. F. (2016) Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-InfectiousPositive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays. Sci. Rep. 6, 23803.

90. Czapar, A. E., Zheng, Y.-R., Riddell, I. A., Shukla, S., Awuah, S. G., Lippard, S. J., & Steinmetz, N. F. (2016). Tobacco mosaic virus delivery of phenanthriplatin for cancer therapy. ACS Nano, 10, 4119-4126.

89. Ganguly R, Wen AM, Myer AB, Czech T, Sahu S, Steinmetz NF, Raman P (2016) Anti-atherogenic effect of trivalent chromium-loaded CPMV nanoparticles in human aortic smooth muscle cells under hyperglycemic conditions in vitro. Nanoscale, 8, 6541-6554.

88. Bruckman MA, Czapar AE, VanMeter A, Randolph LN, Steinmetz NF (2016) Tobacco mosaic virus-based protein nanoparticles and nanorods for chemotherapy delivery targeting breast cancer. Journal of Controlled Release, 213, 103-113.

87. Pitek AS, Jameson SA, Veliz FA, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF (2016) Serum Albumin “Camouflage” of Plant Virus Based Nanoparticles Prevents Their Antibody Recognition and Enhances Pharmacokinetics. Biomaterials, 89, 89-97.

86. Eifler J, Podgornik R, Steinmetz NF, French RH, Parsegian VA, Ching W-Y (2016) Charge Distribution and Hydrogen Bonding of a Collagen a2-Chain in Vacuum, Hydrated, Neutral, and Charged Structural Models. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 116, 681-691.

85. Pitek AS, Wen AM, Shukla S, Steinmetz NF (2016) The protein corona of plant virus nanoparticles influences their dispersion properties, cellular interactions, and in vivo fates. Small, 12, 1758-1769.

84. Lee KL, Twyman RM, Fiering S, Steinmetz NF (2016) Virus-based nanoparticles as platform technologies for modern vaccines. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol, 8, 554-578.

83. Czapar, A.E.*, Steinmetz, N.F. (2016) Paving the way toward translational application of virus-based nanoparticles; in Nanomaterials in Pharmacology (Eds. ZR Lu, Sakuma), Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Springer.

82. Uhde-Holzem, K., McBurney, M.*, Tiu, B.D.*, Advincula, R.C., Fischer, R., Commandeur U., Steinmetz N.F. (2015) .Production of immunosorbent nanoparticles by displaying single-domain protein A on potato virus X, Macromol. Biosci., 16, 231-241.

81. Lizotte, H, Wen, A.M., Sheen, M.R., Fields, J., Rojanasopondist, P., Steinmetz, N.F.#, Fiering, S.# (2016) In situvaccination with cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles suppresses metastatic cancer. Nature Nanotechnology, 11, 295-303. #co-corresponding authors.


80. Wen, A.W.*, Le, N., Zhou, X., Steinmetz, N.F.#, Popkin, D.L.# (2015) Tropism of CPMV toProfessional Antigen Presenting Cells Enables a Platform to Eliminate ChronicInfections. ACS Biomaterials Sci Eng, 1,1050-1054. # co-corresponding authors.

79. Bruckman, M.A.*, Randolph, L.N.*, Gulati, N.G.*, Stewart, P.L., Steinmetz, N.F. (2015) Silica-coated Gd(DOTA)-loaded protein nanoparticles enable magnetic resonance imaging of macrophages, J. Mater. Chem. B., 3, 7503-7510. **Cover article.

78. Koudelka, K. J., Pitek, A.*, Manchester, M., Steinmetz, N.F. (2015) Virus-based nanoparticles as versatile nanomachines, Annu. Rev. Virol. 2015. 2:27.1–27.23

77. Worden, M., Bruckman, M.A.*, Kim, M.-H., Steinmetz, N.F., Kikkawa, J.M., LaSpina C., Hegmann, T. (2015) Aqueous synthesis of polyhedral ‘‘brick-like’’ iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia and T2 MRI contrast enhancement, J. Mater. Chem. B., 3, 6877-6868.

76. Au, L., Meisch, J.P., Das, L.M., Binko, A.M., Boxer, R.S., Wen, A. M.*, Steinmetz, N.F., Lu, K.Q. (2015) Suppression of hyperactive immune responses protects against nitrogen mustard injury. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 135, 2971-2981.

75. Wen A.M.*, Wang Y., Jiang K., Hsu G.C.*, Gao H., Lee K.L.*,Yang A.C.*, Simon D.I., Steinmetz N.F.(2015) Shaping bio-inspired nanotechnologies to target thrombosis for dualoptical-magnetic resonance imaging, J Mater Chem B, 3, 6037-6045.

74. Shukla S.* DiFranco N.A.*, Wen A.M.*, Commandeur U., Steinmetz N.F. (2015) To target or notto target: Active vs. Passive Tumor Homing of Filamentous Nanoparticles basedon Potato virus X. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 8, 433-444.

73. Lee K.L.*, Shukla S*, Wu M.*, Ayat N.R.*, El Sanadi C.E.,Wen A.M.*, Edelbrock J.F., Pokorski J.K., Commandeur U., Dubyak G.R., Steinmetz N.F. (2015) Stealth filaments: Polymer chain length andconformation affect the in vivo fate of PEGylated potato virus X. Acta Biomater. 19, 166-179..

72. Chariou P.L.*, Lee K.L.*, Wen A.M.*, Gulati N.M.*,Stewart P.L., Steinmetz N.F. (2015) Detection and Imaging of Aggressive Cancer CellsUsing an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-Targeted Filamentous PlantVirus-Based Nanoparticle. Bioconjug Chem. 201526(2):262-9.

71. Dryden D.M., Hopkins J.C., Denoyer L.K., Poudel L., Steinmetz N.F., Ching W.Y.,Podgornik R., Parsegian A., French R.H. (2015) van der Waals Interactions on the Mesoscale:Open-Science Implementation, Anisotropy, Retardation, and Solvent Effects.Langmuir, 31, 10145-10153.

70. Poudel L., Wen A.M.,* French R.H., Parsegian V.A.,Podgornik R., Steinmetz N.F.,Ching W.Y.. Electronic structure and partial charge distribution of doxorubicinin different molecular environments. ChemPhysChem. 16,1451-60.

69. Wen A.M.*, Podgornik R.P., Strangi G., Steinmetz N.F. (2015) Photonics andplasmonics go viral: self-assembly of hierarchical metamaterials, RendicontiLincei, 2, 129-141.

68. De Luca A., Bartolino R., Correa-Duarte M.A., Curri M.L.,Steinmetz N.F., Strangi G. (2015)Gain-Assisted Plasmonic Metamaterials: Mimicking Nature to go Across Scales.Rendiconti Lincei, 2, 161-174.

67. Shukla S.* Eber F.J., Nagarajan A.S.*, DiFranco N.A.*,Schmidt N., Wen A.M.*, Eiben S., Twyman R.M., Wege C., Steinmetz N.F. (2015) The impact of aspect ratio on biodistributionand tumor homing of rigid soft-matter nanorods. Advanced Healthcare Materials, 4, 874-882.

66. Shukla S.*, SteinmetzN.F. (2015) Virus-based nanomaterials as PET and MR contrast agents: fromtechnology development to translational medicine, WIRES Nanomedicine andNanobiotechnology, doi: 10.1002/wnan.1335, Epub2015 Feb 12.

65. Wen A.M.*, Infusino M., De Luca A., Kernan D.L.*,Czapar A.E.*, Strangi G., Steinmetz N.F.,(2015) Interface of physics and biology: engineering virus-based nanoparticlesfor biophotonics. Bioconj. Chem., 26, 51-62.

64. Bruckman M.A.*, VanMeter A.*, Steinmetz N.F. (2015) Nanomanufacturing of tobacco mosaicvirus-based spherical biomaterials using a continuous flow method. ACSBiomaterials Science and Engineering, 12,13-18.

63. Schimelman J.B.*, Dryden D.M., Poudel L., Ching W.-Y.,Podgornik R., Parsegian V.A., Denoyer L.K., Steinmetz N.F., French R.H. (2015) Optical properties andelectronic transitions of DNA oligonucleotides as a function of composition andstacking sequence. Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, 17, 4589-4599.

62. Ma Y., Acosta D.M., Whitney J.R.*, Podgornik R., SteinmetzN.F., French R.H., Parsegian V.A. (2015) Determination of the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albuminunder varying pH and ionic strength by composition-gradient multi-angle staticlight scattering. J Biol Phys. 41, 85-97.

61. Rehor, I. Lee, K.L.*, Chen K.*, Hajek, M., Havlik, J., Lokajova, J., Masat, M., Slegerova, J., Shukla, S.*, Heidari, H., Bals, S., Steinmetz, N.F.#, Cigler, P.# (2015) Plasmonic Nanodiamonds: Targeted Core–Shell Type Nanoparticles for Cancer Cell Thermoablation. Adv Healthc Mater. 18, 460-8. #co-corresponding authors.

60. Steinmetz N.F., Manchester M. (2015) Viral Nanoparticles: Tools for Materials Science and Medicine. R. Bawa, G. Audette and I. Rubinstein. (Editors): Handbook of Clinical Nanomedicine, Pan Stanford Publishing, Singapore (2015), 2500+ pages, 2-volume set (in press) [Hardcover ISBN: 9789814316170; eBook ISBN: 9789814411660]

59. Wen A.M.*, Cho, C.-F., Lewis J.D., Steinmetz, N.F., (2015) The application of plant viral nanoparticles in tissue-specific imaging, in Nanotechnology in Biomedical Imaging, Wiley-VCH


58. Rehor, I., Slegerova, J., Kucka, J., Proks, V.,Petrakova, V., Adam, M.P., Treussart, F., Turner, S., Bals, S., Ledvina, L.Wen, A.M.*, Steinmetz, N.F., Cigler,P., (2014) Shape Normalization of Fluorescent Nanodiamonds by BiocompatibleTranslucent Shells, Small, 10, 1106-1115. *Cover article

57. Bruckman M.A.*, RandolphL.*, van Meter A.*, Shoftstall A.J., Taurog, R.E., Steinmetz N.F. (2014) Biodistributionof rod-shaped and spherical tobacco mosaic virus in mice. Virology 449,163-173.

56. Bruckman,M.A.*, Jiang, K., Simpson, E.J.,Randolph L., LuytL.G., Yu, X., Steinmetz, N.F. (2014) Dual-Modal Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Vivo Using VCAM-1 Targeted Tobacco Mosaic Virus. Nano Letters, 14, 1551-1558.

55. Lee, K.L.*, Uhde-Holzem K., Fischer, R., Commandeur, U., Steinmetz N.F. (2014) Genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus X. Virus hybrid as nanomaterials, Methods in Molecular Biology, 1108, 3-21.

54. Cho, C.-F., Sourabh, S.*, Simpson, E.S., Steinmetz, N.F., Luyt, L.G. and Lewis, J.D. (2014) Molecular targeted viral nanoparticles as tools for imaging cancer, Virus hybrid as nanomaterials, Methods in Molecular Biology, 1108, 211-230.

53. Bruckman, M.A.*, Steinmetz, N.F. (2014) Chemical Modification of the Inner and Outer Surfaces of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), Virus hybrid as nanomaterials, Methods in Molecular Biology, 1108, 173-185.

52. Shukla, S.*, Dickmeis,C., Nagarajan, A.*, Fischer F., Commandeur, U., Steinmetz. N.F. (2014) Molecular farming of fluorescent virus-basednanoparticles for optical imaging in plants, human cells, and mouse models,Biomaterials Science, 22, 784-797,Emerging Investigators Issue

51. Wen, A.M.*, Steinmetz N.F. (2014) The aspect ratioof nanoparticle assemblies and the spatial arrangement of ligands can beoptimized to enhance the targeting of cancer cells Advanced HealthcareMaterials, 3, 1739-1744.

50. Adhikari P., Wen A.M.*,French R.H., Parsegian V.A., SteinmetzN.F., Podgornik R., Ching W.Y. (2014). Electronic structure, dieletricresponse, and surface charge distribution of PEG (1FUV). SciRep. doi: 10.1038/srep05605.

49. Shukla, S.*, Wen, A.M.*,Commandeur, U., Steinmetz N.F.(2014) Presentation of HER2 epitopes using a filamentous plant virus-based vaccination platform, J. Materials Chemistry B, 2, 6249-6258.

48. Shukla, S.*, Wen, A.M.*, Ayat, N.R.*, Commandeur, U., Gopalkrishnan R., Broome,A.-M., Lozada, K.,Keri, R.A., Steinmetz, N.F. (2014) Biodistribution and clearance of afilamentous plant virus in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. Nanomedicine 9,221-235.


47. Bruckman, M.A.*, Yu, X. Steinmetz, N.F. (2014) Engineering Gd-loaded nanoparticles to enhance MRI sensitivity, Nanotechnology, 24, Number 26.

46. Lee, K.L.*, Hubbard, L., Hern, S.*, Yildiz, I.*, Gratzl, M.G., Steinmetz, N.F. (2013) Shape matters: the diffusion rates of TMV rods and CPMV icosahedrons in a spheroid model of extracellular matrix are distinct, Biomaterials Science, 1, 581-588.

45. Yildiz, I.*, Lee K.L.*, Chen, K.*, Steinmetz, N.F. (2013) Infusion of imaging and therapeutic molecules into the plant virus-based carrier cowpea mosaic virus: cargo-loading and in vitro delivery, Journal of Controlled Release 172, 568-578.

44. Bruckman, M.A.*, Jiang,K., Hern S.*, Flask, C., Yu, X., Steinmetz, N.F. (2013) Tobacco mosaicvirus rods and spheres as supramolecular high-relaxivity MRI contrast agents.Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 1, 1482-1490.

43. Wen, A.M.*, Rambhia, P.*, French, R.H., Steinmetz, N.F. (2013) Design rules for nanomedical engineering: from physical virology to the applications of virus-based materials in medicine. J of Biol Physics, 39m, 301-325.

42. Shukla, S.*, Ablack, A.L., Wen, A.M.*, Lee, K.L.*, Lewis, J.D., Steinmetz, N.F. (2013) Increased tumor homing and tissue penetration of the filamentous plant viral nanoparticle potato virus X. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 10, 33-43.

41. Aljabali, A.A.A.#, Shukla, S.#*, Lomonossoff, G.P., Steinmetz, N.F.#, Evans, D.J.# (2013) CPMV-DOX delivers. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 10, 3-10. #both authors contributed equally, #co-corresponding authors

40. Guest Editor: Steinmetz, N.F., Viral nanoparticles in drug delivery and imaging, Molecular Pharmaceutics, 2013, Special Issue. page 1ff.


39. Wen, A.M.*, Shukla, S.*, Saxena, P., Aljabali, A.A.A., Yildiz, I.*, Sourav, D.*, Mealy, J.*, Yang, A.*, Evans, D.J., Lomonossoff, G.P., Steinmetz, N.F. (2012) Interior engineering of a viral nanoparticle and its tumor homing properties, Biomacromolecules, 13, 3990-4001.

38. Aljabali, A.A.A., Barclay, J.E., Steinmetz, N.F., Lomonossoff, G.P., Evans, D.J. (2012) Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid. Nanoscale, 4, 5640-5645.

37. Wen, A.M.*, Ryan, M.J.*, Yang, A.C.*, Breitenkamp, K., Pokorski, J.K., Steinmetz N.F. (2012) Photodynamic activity of viral nanoparticles conjugated with C60. Chemical Communications, 48, 9044-9046.

36. Hovlid M.L., Steinmetz, N.F., Laufer B., Lau J.L., Kuzelka, J., Wang, Q., Hyypia, T., Nemerow,G.R., Kessler, H., Manchester, M., Finn, M.G. (2012) Guiding Plant VirusParticles to Integrin-Displaying Cells. Nanoscale, 4, 3698-3705.

35. Wen, A.M.*, Lee, K.L.*, Yildiz, I.*, Bruckman, M.A.*, Shukla, S.*, Steinmetz, N.F. (2012) Viral nanoparticles for in vivo tumor imaging. Journal of Visualized Experiments, e4352

34. Wu, Z.*, Chen, K.*, Yildiz, I.*, Dirksen, A., Fischer, R. Dawson, P.E., Steinmetz, N.F. (2012) Development of viral nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery, Nanoscale, 4, 3698-3705. ** Cover article.

33. Taghavian, O., Mandal, M.K., Steinmetz, N.F., Rasche, S., Spiegel, H., Fischer R., Schillberg, S. (2012) A potential nanobiotechnology platform based on infectious bursal disease subviral particles, RSC Advances, 2, 1970-1978.

32. Yildiz, I.*, Tvestkova, I., Wen, A.W.*, Shukla, S.*, Masarapu, H., Dragnea, B., Steinmetz N.F. (2012) Engineering Brome mosaic virus for biomedical applications, RSC Advances, 2, 3670-3677.

31. Authors: Steinmetz, N.F. & Manchester, M. (2012) Viral Nanoparticles: Tools for Materials Science and Biomedicine. Pan Stanford Publishing, Singapore.


30. Steinmetz N.F., Maurer, J., Sheng H, Bensussan, A, Marcic, I., Kumar, V., Braciak, T. (2011) Two domains of vimentin are expressed on the surface of lymph node, bone and brain metastatic prostate cancer lines along with the putative stem cell marker proteins CD44 and CD133. Cancers, 3, 2870-2885.

29. Steinmetz N.F., Ablack, A.L., Hickey J.H., Ablack J., Manocho, B., Mymryk, J.S., Luyt, L.G., Lewis, J.D., (2011) Intravital Imaging of Human Prostate Cancer Using Viral Nanoparticles Targeted to Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptors, Small, 20, 1664-1672. * Cover article

28. Yildiz I.*, Shukla S.*, Steinmetz N.F., (2011) Applications of viral nanoparticles in medicine, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 22, 901-908.

27. Pokorski, J.K., Steinmetz,N.F. (2011): The Art of Engineering Viral Nanoparticles. MolecularPharmaceutics, 7, 29-43. *by invitation ** Top 10 article in Molecular Pharmaceutics in 2011

26. Steinmetz N.F., Cho C.-F., Ablack, A., Lewis, J.D., Manchester, M. (2011): CPMV nanoparticles target surface vimentin on cancer cells. Nanomedicine, 6, 351-364.

25. Huang, R.K.#, Steinmetz, N.F.#, Fu, C.-Y., Manchester, M. Johnson, J.E. (2011) Transferrin-mediated targeting of bacteriophage HK97 nanoparticles into tumor cells. Nanomedicine, 6, 55-68. #both authors contributed equally


24. Steinmetz, N.F. (2010) Review of "Cancer Nanotechnology:Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)" BioMedicalEngineering OnLine 2010, 9:55, doi:10.1186

23. Steinmetz, N.F., Mertens, M.E., Taurog,R.E., Johnson, J.E., Commandeur, U., Fischer, R., Manchester, M. (2010) Potato virus X as a novel platform for biomedical applications. Nano Letters, 10,305-312.

22. Brunel, F.M., Lewis,J.D., Destito, G., Steinmetz, N.F., Manchester, M., Stuhlmann, H.,Dawson, P.E. (2010) A Hydrazone Ligation Strategy to Assemble Multifunctional Viral Nanoparticles for Cell Imaging and Tumor Targeting. Nano Letters, 10, 1093-1097.

21. Steinmetz, N.F. (2010) Viral nanoparticles as platforms for next generation therapeutics and imagingdevices. Nanomedicine NBM, 6, 634-641.

20. Leong, H.S., Steinmetz N.F., Ablack, A., Manchester, M., Lewis, J.D. (2010) Intravital imaging of embryonic and tumor neovasculature using viral nanoparticles. Nature Protocols, 5 (8), 1406-1417.

19. Hong, V.#, Steinmetz, N.F.#, Manchester, M., Finn, M.G. (2010) Labeling Live Cells by Copper-Catalyzed Alkyne-AzideClick Chemistry. Bioconjugate Chemistry, 21, 1912-1916. #both authors contributed equally, ** cover article


18. Steinmetz, N.F., Hong, V., Spoerke, D.E., Lu, P., Breitenkamp, K. Finn, M.G., Manchester, M. (2009) Buckyballs meet viral nanoparticles – Candidates for Biomedicine. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131, 17093-17095.

17. Steinmetz, N.F., Shah, S., Barclay, J.E., Rallapalli, S., Lomonossoff, G.P., Evans, D.J. (2009) Virus templated silica nanoparticles. Small 5, 813-816.

16. Shah S.N., Steinmetz N.F., Aljabali A.A.,Lomonossoff G.P., Evans D.J. (2009) Environmentallybenign synthesis of virus-templated, monodisperse, iron-platinum nanoparticles. Dalton Trans. 2009 40), 8479-80.

15. Steinmetz, N.F., Lin T., Lomonossoff, G.P., Johnson, J.E. (2009) Structure-based engineering of an icosahedral virus for nanomedicine and -technology. In Current Topics of Microbiology and Immunology: Viruses and Nanotechnology (Eds. Manchester, M. & Steinmetz, N.F), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, pp. 23-58.

14. Eds. Manchester, M. & Steinmetz, N.F., Current Topics of Microbiology andImmunology: Viruses and Nanotechnology, 2009, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany.

13. Steinmetz, N.F. and Manchester M. (2009) PEGylated viral nanoparticles for biomedicine: the impact of PEG chain length on VNP cell interactions in vitro and ex vivo. Biomacromolecules 10, 784-792.

12. Tellechea, E.,Johannsmann, D., Steinmetz, N.F., Richter, R.P., Reviakine, I. (2009) Model-independent analysis of QCM data on colloidal particle adsoption.Langmuir 25(9): 5177-84.


11. Steinmetz, N.F., Bize, A., Findlay, K.C, Lomonossoff, G.P., Manchester, M., Evans, D.J., Prangishvili, D. (2008) Site-specific and spatially controlled addressability of a new viral nanobuilding block: Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2. Advanced Functional Materials, 18, 2478-3486.

10. Bingen, P., Wang, G., Steinmetz, N.F., Rodahl, M., Richter, R.P. (2008) Solvation Effects in the Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring Response to Biomolecular Adsorption. A Phenomenological Approach. Analytical Chemistry, 80 (23): 8880-90.

9. Steinmetz, N.F. (2008) Plant viral capsids as programmable nanobuilding blocks. In Tomorrow’s Chemistry Today (Ed. Pignataro B.), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, pp. 215-236.

8. Steinmetz, N.F., Findlay K.C., Noel, T.R., Parker, R., Lomonossoff, G.P., Evans D.J. (2008) Layer-by-layer assembly of viral nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes: The film architecture is different for spheres versus rods. ChemBioChem, 9(10):1662-70.

7. Steinmetz, N.F., Bock, E., Richter,R.P., Spatz, J.P., Lomonossoff, G.P. and Evans, D.J. (2008) Assembly ofmultilayer arrays of viral nanoparticles via biospecific recognition: a quartzcrystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring study. Biomacromolecules,9(2); 456-462.


6. Steinmetz, N.F. and Evans, D.J. (2007) Utilisation of plant viruses in bionanotechnology. Org. Biomol. Chem., 5, 2891-2902.

5. Richter, R.P., Hock, K.K., Burkhartsmeyer, J., Boehm, H., Bingen, P., Wang, G., Steinmetz, N.F., Evans, D.J. and Spatz, J.P. (2007) Membrane-grafted hyaluronan films: a well-defined model system of glycoconjugate cell coats. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 129, 5306-5307.

4. Steinmetz, N.F., Evans, D.J. andLomonossoff, G.P. (2007) Chemical introduction of reactive thiols into a viralnanoscaffold: a method which avoids virus aggregation. ChemBioChem, 8,1131-1136.


3. Steinmetz, N.F., Calder, G., Lomonossoff, G.P. and Evans, D.J. (2006) Plant viral capsids as nanobuilding blocks: construction of arrays on solid supports. Langmuir, 22, 10032-10037.

2. Steinmetz, N.F., Lomonossoff, G.P. and Evans, D.J. (2006) Cowpea mosaic virus for material fabrication: addressable carboxylate groups on a programmable nanoscaffold. Langmuir, 22, 3488-3490.

1. Steinmetz, N.F., Lomonossoff, G.P. and Evans, D.J. (2006) Decoration of Cowpeamosaic virus with multiple, redox active, organometallic complexes.Small, 2, 530-533.

* denotes Steinmetz Lab trainee

Copyright © All rights reserved.
Using Format